During its life extended for more than a hundred of years, the Egyptian oil industry had witnesses the political, economic and social events and developments with which it was influenced. In addition, its account includes many important and effective dates. The oil industry has been distinguished in the previous century by the several advantages which placed Egypt in the row of the top precedent Arab countries in the different phases of oil industry containing history and originality when the government started in 1886, more than one hundred years ago, the drilling works in the first oil well in Gamasah, to the point of completion of the oil industry phases. For the end of a century and the beginning of a new one, it is pleasure for the Oil Magazine to introduce to its reader the rich history of oil over one hundred years including the most important events and dates to be ever and for ever the memory of history which has witnessed the challenges and giant endeavors exerted by the oil sector during its long life to achieve good and development for the Egyptian people.
During the royal era
• The year 1904 is the beginning of the work activity of the foreign companies when the Egyptian government had granted Cairo Syndicate Co. the privilege to prospect oil in Sinai and Quena then the other companies have come later on for oil prospect in other areas but in vain.
• In Gamasah, no commercial amounts of oil were reached to May 1908 after the establishment of the Authority of Mines and Quarries in 1906. Moreover, a number of the deeper wells were drilled.
• In April 1909, Trust Co. could produce the oil from Gamasah oil field while the field commercial production has started in 1910. Thereafter, the oil prospects in Egypt had started.
• In 1911, celebration has been set for laying out the bedrock of the first oil refinery in Egypt, affiliated to the English – Egyptian Oils Wells Co. (Al Nasr Oil recently) in Suez and its operation started in 1913.
• In 1918, the Petroleum Search Authority was established and it has conducted the various geological tasks.
• In 1922, it was the start to establish the "Royal Governmental Oil Refinery" in Suez to refine the royalty raw. It is the second oil refinery in Egypt, the whole Arab world and Africa and it was operated in 1923.
• In 1934, the Cooperative Petroleum Association Co. was established to support the movement of cooperation in Egypt.
During the era of President/ Jamal Abdul Nasser
• In 1953, the Cooperative Petroleum Association Co. was granted the privilege to prospect petrol in some areas of Sinai (Balae'm). In Addition, the National Petrol Co. was formed by the separate European capitals in order to work for National Petrol Co. for avoidance of the latter to the financial risks result from oil prospect.
• In 1954, the government has granted the privilege covering the greatest part of the western desert to the group of independent American Companies which formed together Sahara Petroleum Co. (Conrada) which did not achieve any commercial discovery of oil and withdrew in 1958.
• In March 1956, the Petroleum Affairs General Organization was set upon the law no. 135/1956 to be affiliated to the Ministry of Industry. It was the first organization in Egypt which was competent in administrating the governmental oil refineries and the general establishments concerning with petroleum materials and derivatives and It was the body corporate.
President Jamal Abdul Nasser in (Dar EL Ta'awn) the Cooperative Association of Petrol received by Mohamed Zaki Ali Pasha the second chairman of the company.
• In June 1956, Suez Canal has been nationalized and it was honor for the Petroleum Affairs General Organization Co. and Suez oil Refinery to contribute the achievement of such a significant event.
• In September of the same year, the law of organization establishment was amended by law no. 332/1956 to be submitted to the Ministry of Industry.
• In 1957, the "General Petroleum Company" was established and it is the first pure national company owned by the country to work in the field of prospect and production in the developing countries.
• In the same year, " the Eastern Petroleum Company" ( Italian - Egyptian) was formed to replace the National Petroleum Co. in Balae'm areasand it was the first company which has worked on the basis of the partnership contacts in the Arab World.
• In 1958, the Egyptian- Syrian Unity was formed to put the new burdens on the Petroleum Affairs General Organization to guarantee the achievement of the unified oil policy in the two countries, ensure the progress of the economic development and try to link both countries with the oil keys in the Middle East.
President Jamal Abdul Nasser, (Anreck Mateeh) the president of Ieny Italian Organization and Eng. Aziz Sedky the Minister of Industry, Petroleum and Mineral Resources - Cairo in 1960.
• In the same year, the agreement entered by Egypt and the Soviet Union aiming at cooperation in the field of oil.
• In December 1959, the law no.: 2344 was issued to reduce the competences of the Petroleum Affairs General Organization by it so that it was entitled only to contribute the stipulations of the petroleum standards.
• In the same year, the first Petroleum Arab Conference was held in Cairo when Egypt had the great and effective role.
• In 1961, the first sea oil field in Egypt and the Middle East was discovered "North Balae'm".
• In the same year, the law no.: 118 was issued to stipulate the share of the general sector by the capital amounting to 91 companies including the English - Egyptian Oils Wells Co. and the independent Egyptian Oil Co. while the name of the Egyptian Oils Wells Co. was changed into Al Nasr Oils Wells. It was totally nationalized in 1964 and its property has been transferred to the Petroleum Affairs General Organization.
• The year 1964 has witnessed the execution of the two partnership agreements entered with the two international companies; American Co. (Recently Amoco) and Philips Petroleum Co. to broaden the spaces and areas of oil prospect.
• Within the qualitative division of the activity of general sector, the Egyptian Petroleum Affairs General Organization has been replaced by General Petroleum Organization in December 1964.
President Jamal Abdul Nasser reviews the activities of petrol (1968) with Eng. Aziz Sedky the Minister of Industry, Petroleum and Mineral Resources and Eng. Ahmed Kamel Al Badry the chairman of the Petroleum Association.
• In 1965, "Gabco" company was established as the Egyptian American Corporation which prospect the crude oil and the favor returned to it at the first discovery of the natural gases ( Abulghradeek Filed in 1975). Moreover, it has discovered in 1965 the biggest and oldest oil field (Al Morgan) which started its production in 1967.
• Despite the events took place in 1967 and affected the oil industry negatively, Cairo Oil Refinery was operated in 1969 while Al Amria Oil Refinery was operated in 1972, then Tanta Oil Refinery in 1973 to achieve the policy of the oil refineries geographical spread not to be focused in Suez area.
During the Era of President/ Mohamed Anwar El Sadat
• The series of the exploration seminars has started in February 1969 but in 1971, the series of the production seminars has begun, thereafter they were held alternately and regularly each two years.
• Egypt has joint the Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries "OPEC" in March 1972.
• In March 1973, the first Ministry of Petroleum in Egypt was formed to bear the entire responsibility of such vital industry and administer the political, strategic and economic roles to prepare for October War in 1973.
• In 6th October 1973 the brilliant victory over Israel was done affecting the oil industry on the positive track on the global, Arab (the first price revolution) and Egyptian level and leading to:
- Recovering the petrol fields in Sinai on 17 November 1975, hence this date is deemed as the day of petrol each year.
- Broadening the oil prospect operations in Egypt.
- Initiating the International petroleum companies to work in Egypt.
- Re-operating Suez oil refineries.
• In January 1974K the Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company was established "Somid" as the pattern of the Arab Co- Investment but in April of the same year the execution of the first phase has started with the capacity of 40 Million tons / year and in December 1976 the first container was dumped in AAin Al Soukhna.
President Mohamed Anwar AL Sadat, Eng. Ahmed Ezz Aldin Helal the deputy prime minister and Eng. Abdel Hamid Krosh, the president of Somid Company in the opening of June 1977 Project
• In 1976, the law 20 was issued to establish the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation to replace the Egyptian General Petroleum Authority.
• In January 1977, the first petroleum container was charged to Somid Line from Seedy Kreir.
• In 1978, Petrobul Company was built as the joint Egyptian - Italian Company and it was turned into the production common production as well as it was assigned to operate Abu Mady oil Fields processes.
• In October 1978, the operation second phase of Somid Line has been started by the capacity of 80 Million tons/ year.
• In April 1979, the Egyptian membership in "OPEC" was frozen for the execution of Camp David Accords.
During the era of President/ Mohamed Hosny Mubarak
• In October 1983, President Mohamed Hosny Mubarak has opened the Gas Attendant Plant in Shkeir; the first phase of "the project of Suez Gulf Gas Collection" while the second phase was opened in 1987.
• In 1984, the execution of the first phase of LPG Gas extraction was started to use the attendant gas produced from Balae'm.
• In November 1986, the Egyptian Petroleum Sector has celebrated the centenary day of petroleum and passing of one hundred years on the petroleum exploration for the first time in Gamasah. Also, the Eighth conference of petroleum research and exploration was held with the first petroleum activities fair.
• The coke coal was exported for the first time from Suez and the petroleum was pumped in the regular amounts from Al Salam Field in the Western Desert.
• In June, the biggest and newest line for natural gas discovery was opened in the Western Desert and it was achieved by "Kashf Tarek" eternal Company.
• In the same year, the new article of natural gas was added to ensure the investor his full right to recover the expenses he paid and his share of the interests in the gas agreements including the petroleum agreements.
• In September, the first surface geological map was set to cover all Egypt.
• Also, President Mubarak has visited the petroleum production sites in the Western Desert in September and he opened the number of the petroleum projects for oil and natural gas production and the line pipes.
• In October his presidency has performed his second visit to the production site in the Eastern Desert in Red Sea Governorate to inspect the new projects.
• In December, the Petroleum Authority has started the development of Gisium Crude Oil Filed for its own interest after Konoco Copmany has withdrawn and it took two years.
• The first Natural Gas Association was set in Egypt.
• In November, the ninth research and exploration petroleum conference was held for the first time and the activities of exploration and research were added in one conference with the following fair which continued for two years.
• Egypt has joint the African Petroleum Producers Association with the purpose of supporting the cooperation process among the African Petroleum Producing countries in all the Petroleum fields (the association was set in 1987) thereafter, Egypt has joint its ministerial and expert meetings.
• This year has achieved the standard figures in the filed of petroleum agreements entered by the foreign companies to prospect petroleum and natural gas so that, hence the enjoyable stable political and petroleum sides in Egypt were ascertained during such time. Agreements have reached the number of 35.
• In November, Egypt has participated in the OPEC conference held in Abu Dhabi after rejoining the organization in 1989 and assigning it to the next session presidency appreciating the role played by it on the Arab stage and its capacity to forcibly push the petroleum work forward.
• The fifteenth Group was formed from the third world leading countries including Egypt to adopt the new concept of cooperation among the south countries in 1990.
• The three dimensional seismic survey was adopted in the Western Dessert for the first time by Badr Aldin Company.
• Gas was operated and pumped for the first time through the new line Badr Aldin/ Al Amria which is affiliated to Petrojet Company and the biggest natural gas plant was operated in the Western Dessert.
• In December, the forty fifth ministerial meeting was held by OPEC organization in Cairo under the presidency of Egypt. Since this date to the Iraqi - Kuwaiti invasion, in August 1990, the OPEC ministerial conferences were held in Egypt.
• The independent petroleum exporting countries "IPEC'' have met in Egypt after its invitation with the aim of studying the conditions of the International petroleum Markets.
• In January, the agreement to extend the term of Somid Co. for the additional 27 years was entered.
• The new policy was executed to encourage the International Companies for oil prospect and production under the deep water and the remote areas.
• In March, the joint cooperation agreement was entered by and between the Ministry of Tourism and The Ministry of petroleum to define the conditions for the Red Sea Coast Lands in the area located between Suez and the Sudanese borders for the tourists and petroleum activities.
• This year has also witnessed the private sector entry in the search and prospect fields and opening the new horizons with a lot of the concerning countries.
• In December, the branch of Petromin Misr Company (Petrolub) was opened in Egypt to cover the requirements of the Egyptian and African Markets for the lubricants.
• In January, the newest environments protection centre was opened in Hurghada, Read Sea.
• Egypt has participated in the ministerial conference (EPIC – OPIC) in April 1993 in Muscat, Oman in the same time when the conditions affected the global markets for petroleum under the remarkable price - drop and after the consequent and important international variables.
• In the same year, the article of Gas was amended to be priced upon the comparison based on the crude petroleum instead of the average sulfur diesel.
• At the beginning of the year, the first agreement was entered to encourage the investments of the private sector to prospect petroleum and gas in Egypt.
• To ascertain the role and leadership of Egypt in the field of exploration, the third conference for exploration and development in the Middle East and Africa was held in Egypt for the first time in March
• In the same year, the through- Gulf gas project was set to utilize and transport the gas by the production facilities in Balae'm, Sinai and North October filed in Suez Gulf. Moreover, the project to produce the ethylene and polyethylene in the Egyptian Petrochemical Assembly and the bedrock of the diesel Hydro cracking project in Al Nasr petroleum Company in Suez.
• In May, the Arab Energy Conference was held under the presidency of Egypt under the logo of "Energy and Arab Cooperation".
• In August, the first station to supply the Vehicles with natural gas in Egypt and the Middle East, In Abassya by Petrobul Company.
• The agreement over the greatest project for the private sector in Egypt; the Middle East Refinery " Midoor" to pass the most current international progressed technology to the Egyptian oil refinery industry.
• In June, the first conference for the Strategy for Refinery Industry was held to 2010 in Suez to plan the future and go through with the global variables over the petroleum products.
• The project of the gas field "WCAR" was started in the Mediterranean Sea, North Port Said by Petrobul Co.
• In June, President Hosny Mubarak has visited the newest petrol- discovery in the Western Desert and he gave the start- sign to develop Qaroun Field to be opened in June 1997.
• In August, the operation of the third phase of Somid Line was started with the capacity of 117 million tons/ year.
• In February, the first Center to supply and transfer the vehicles with the natural gas by "Car Gas" company. Egypt is the first country in the Middle East to use the natural gas for the vehicles.
• In May, the meeting of "OPEC" trust was held in Cairo by the environment experts in the member countries to coordinate the issued among their delegations joining the second conference held by the parties of the Frame agreement entered by the United Nations for the climatic changes and it was held in Geneva in July 1996.
• In June, Egypt has joint the meetings of the environment experts conference for the Mediterranean Sea and the European Union countries in the Italian City; Treista to search the ways of cooperation support and the development of European Investments with the countries of the Mediterranean Sea in the field of Petroleum and energy.
• In July, President Mubarak has opened the sea field of Port Fouad for the natural gas in Port Said. This filed is the first production in the area.
• In the same year, the Egyptian Petroleum Museum was established to collect the Egyptian Petroleum heritage.
• In October the "Petroleum" thirteenth conference was held in Cairo under the logo of "Petrol and Environmental Protection" and it was the first unified conference for the petrol activity and it included all the petrol activities. Since such date, the conference is being held each two years.
• In November Cairo "Economic Conference in the Middle East and North Africa" was held to understand the importance of the Arab Regional cooperation facing the global economy.
• Also, the fist phase of the project of increasing the storing capacity in Somid Line in Seidy Krier to be 3.2 million m3 in November.
• In December, the operation was started for the newest compound to mix the mineral oils in the Middle East and Africa in Al Amria.
• In the same month, Egypt has participated in the fifth Global Conference for Energy in Goa City, in India which tackled the issues of investment and technology requirements and the alternative resources of energy.
• In January, President Mubarak has given the start sign to start the works of Nile water entry in Al Wady Al Jadeed channel in Toshka for the greatest civil projects entered by Egypt in the 21st Century.
• In February, he has given the start sign to begin the production of "Meliha" deep field for Ageiba Company and "Kenz" Field affiliated to Khaleda Petroleum Company was discovered.
• In the same month, the execution of "Al Abiad" field was started as the first discovery of natural gas in the Northern Western Desert and "Al Faras" field affiliated to Ageiba Company which is deemed as the first filed for petrol production in Munkhafad Al Katatrah.
• Also, the first signature was performed by and between Egypt and Saudi Arabia in Al Zaheran City for the filed of oil prospect on the Saudi Lands in November.
• In the same month, the protocol of the common cooperation by Egypt and Yemen was signed in the field of the oil agreements, search, exploration, training and execution of the common oil projects.
• Moreover, the bedrock of the diesel hydro cracking project was set for Egypt Petroleum Industry within the scope of the concern for joining the private sector the activity of petrol works.
• In the same year, the common cooperative agreement was entered by and between Egypt and Libya in the petrol and Petrochemicals field.
• For the first time in Egypt and the Middle East, the Ministry of Petroleum has started the operation of the air conditions by the natural gas.
• In June, President Mubarak has opened "Burg AL Arab" field in the Western Desert and it is the first oil field for the private sector in Egypt.
• In July, there has been agreement by and between Egypt and Libya to extend the lines of oil production between Tabraque in Libya and Seidy Krier in Alexandria.
• In August, the second phase of the project of increasing the storing capacity of Somidy Line in Seidy Kreir to reach the capacity of 3.7 million billion m3.
• In September, the first container was partially dumped in Al Ain Al Soukhna under the scope of cooperation in Somid and Suez Canal.
• In October, President Hosny Mubarak has opened Bani Sueif oil field; the first oil producing field in this area.
• Also, the agreement of Petroleum Authority and Ieny Italian Organization was entered to extend the lines to transport the natural gas form the sea fields in the Mediterranean Sea to South Sinai through the tunnel under Suez Canal in October while execution was started in 1998.
• In the same month, the agreement was entered in Abu Dries by and between the Petroleum Authority and Eok Company for the new gas line and the assignment of "Petrobul" Company for the developments and operation. Eok is the first Company to continue the drill woks in the deep water in the Mediterranean Sea after several years of the absence of such activity. This work is the true step forwards the development of natural gas in Egypt in the Mediterranean Sea.
• In December, President Mubarak has given the start sign for the operation and development of "Wady Al Sahl" field, in the west of Hurghada.
• The end of this year has witnessed the establishment of several companies of the Egyptian private sector including City Gas Co. and Seidy Kreir Petrochemical Co.
• In March, the agreement to establish Al Sharqion Petrochemical Company; the first petrochemical compound of the private sector (by and between Egypt, America and Japan).
• Also, the seminar "the challenge of 2000" was held and organized by the Petroleum Authority understanding the possible disorders in computers and Information Systems from 2000 and their influence on the petrol industry in March.
• In April, the first Egyptian - Chinese agreement was executed in the field of oil wells prospect.
• In May, under the logo of "Energy and Arab Cooperation", the Sixth Arab Energy Conference was held in Syria and joint by Egypt.
• In July, the first project for the pipe line to transport the LPG Gas Gas over the gulf from Balae'm fields in South Sinai to the main storage warehouses in Ra's Bakr Area, East Suez gulf then to the distributing centers in Quatamia.
• In October, the fourteenth Petrol Conference was held under the logo of "The New Areas Of Deep Waters And South Egypt" where the three partnership agreements were entered with the global companies to prospect oil and natural gas as well as their production in the land and deep water areas out the Egyptian borders; the Italian Gibb and Edison Company and the Resipol Spanish Company.
• Also, the protocol for the energy sufficiency board was signed by and between al the competent authorities in the Country including the Petroleum Authority in October.
• In the same month, the agreement for natural gas sale from Al Temsah fields on the Mediterranean Sea with Al Dawlia Oil Company and Omoko Amrican Company to market the produced gas in this area in order to save the requirements of all the stations of electricity Power Generation. This act is deemed as the certainty of the Foreigner partners' trust of the future of natural gas in Egypt.
• In November, the twenty third petrol day was the same time of the precedence of 25 year over the glorious October victories.
• In the same month, Egypt has participated in the works of the Energy sixth Conference held in Keep Town City in South Africa.
• In February, President Mubarak has performed his new visit to Toshka and he has given the start sign to operate the strategic warehouse of the petrol products. This is the most important project which shall provide the energy paths for all the projects planned to be set in the South Valley.
• The new kind of Asphalt was produced with the high quality specifications for the first time in Egypt.
• The commercial operation of the biggest two stations for electricity generation by the wind energy in Al Za'frana.
• In May, President Mubarak has opened the gas project over the gulf in Ra's Bakr affiliated to Gabco Company.
• In June, the newest plant for the mixture and packaging of the mineral gases for "ASO" Company in the Tenth of Ramadan City.
• Also, in June, the seminar of computers was held in 2000 and organized by Brtish Gas Company in cooperation with the BB Omoco Company, Shell and the Petroleum Authority to make the procedures ensure the dealing with all the systems inapplicable to the year 2000.
• In the tenth day of October 1999, president Mubraka has issued his presidential decree no. 325/1999 to form the new government under the presidency of Dr. Attef Abied and he has appointed Eng. Sameh Fahmy as the Minister of Petroleum.
• October day has been celebrated simultaneously with the eighteen years passed after the taking over President Mubarak to continue the march of progress and achieve the dream for which he has went for long.
• The twenty fourth petrol day celebration has witnessed the new manner assigned by the Ministry Of Petroleum when it honored the families of martyrs who have been working in the field of petrol in the last year including the six petrol martyrs who were the victims of the destroyed pan.
• In December, the sixty third conference of "OPEC" was held under the presidency of Eng. Sameh Fahmy, the Minister of Petroleum. Moreover, a conference was held to develop the usages natural gas in the electricity stations, industry and housing in Cairo under the presidency of Eng. Sameh Fahmy and organized by the Energy Organization of the Mediterranean countries in cooperation with Egypt Electricity Authority and the Petroleum Authority.
Certainly, this account is rich with events as it is previewed briefly narrating the success story which was achieved by the Sector of Petrol for the time exceeding a century.