Egypt offered humanity the oldest political system in the world .On the banks of the river Nile the first unified central government in history was established. Egypt was a pioneer in that through institutions that played a crucial role in shaping people's life, protecting liberty, values and democracy.
The Permanent Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt regulates the political system of the state. The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt was promulgated on September 11th, 1971 and amended on May, 22nd, 1980, May 25th, 2005 and March; 2007.It defines the public authorities and its competences. Thus, the Constitution lays the foundations of the parliamentary democratic system and stresses that the sovereignty of the law and the independence of the Judiciary Authority are the basis of rule in the state, that Principles of the Islamic Shari'a are the principle source of legislation and Arabic is the official language of the state. The Egyptian Political System consists of the Legislative, the Executive and the Judiciary authorities, the Press, the Political parties, the local administration and the civil society institutions.
First: Legislative Authority
People's Assembly has the legislative power of the Arab Republic of Egypt. According to the Constitution the People's Assembly exercises the legislative power and adopts the overall policy of the state, the public plan of economic and social development and the overall budget of the state. It exercises control over the work of the executive authority in the manner prescribed by the Constitution .It nominates the president and accepts his resignation.
The Shura Council:
The Jurisdiction of the Shura Council is defined by Articles (194) and (195) of the Constitution. According to the Article (194)of the constitution ,the Shura Assembly is concerned with the study and proposal of what it deems necessary to preserve the principles of the 23rdJuly, 1952 Revolution and the 15th May, 1971 Revolution , to consolidate national unity and social peace ,to protect the Alliance of the people's working forces and socialist gains as well as the basic constitutes of the society ,its supreme values ,its rights and public freedom and duties, and to deepen and widen the scope of the democratic socialist system.
Second: Executive Authority
The Head of the state (The President of the Republic):
The President leads the Executive Authority; he ensures sovereignty of the people, respect for the constitution and the rule of the law and protection of the national unity. The term of the Presidency is six Gregorian years starting from date of the announcement of the result of the referendum. The president of the Republic may be reelected for other successive terms. The President of the Republic, in conjunction with the government, lays the general policy of the state and supervises its implementation. The President is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, of the National Defense Council and the Supreme Council of the Police.
The Government (The Cabinet):
The Cabinet is considered the Supreme Executive and Administrative Authority. It administrates the works of the state .It directs and follows up the work of the ministries and public organizations ,drafts the State General Plan and the State General Budget, and seals loan agreements. The Cabinet assists the Head of the State in the making of general policies and implementing them according to the laws & decrees of the republic. The Cabinet also follows up the execution of laws, and protects the state security, rights and interests.
Third: The Judiciary Authority:
The Judiciary Authority is independent, exercised by the courts which issue their judgments in accordance with the law. Judges are independent as well, and no authority may intervene in Justice Affairs.
The Judiciary Authority exclusively undertakes the judicial control of the Constitutionality of the laws and regulations and the interpretation of its legislative texts. It also has an important role in forming political parties.
Fourth: The Press:
The press is considered a popular independent authority exercising its mission in accordance with the stipulations of the Constitution and the law. The Constitution stipulated that the freedom of the press be guaranteed, and Press censorship be forbidden.
The Supreme Council of Press:
It is an independent Authority that undertakes the press affairs to guarantee its freedom and independence in accordance with the law.
Fifth: The Political Parties:
Since the issuing of the law of the Political Parties in June 1977, which regulates the formation of the political parties, the number of the political parties increased from 5 parties in 1981 to 23 parties nowadays .They practice their political activities freely in a framework of complete legal and political guaranties
Sixth: The Local Administration:
The Arab Republic of Egypt is divided into administrative units, including governorates cities and villages that enjoy a legal personality. The Local Administration, in accordance with the General Plan of the State establishes and administrates the local services and utilities and approves on land reclamation projects.